specifically, adult gliomas:
“For race/ethnic group variation, we observed an important commonality between GBM [glioblastoma] and non-GBM. For each subtype, compared to non-Hispanic Whites, the incidence rate among Blacks, Asian/Pacific Islanders, and American Indians/Alaskan Natives was substantially lower (one-fourth to one-half for GBM; about two-fifths for non-GBM). However, secondary to this primary effect, race/ethnic group variation in incidence was less for non-GBM than for GBM, a difference that was highly statistically significant but only moderate in magnitude.
“There is evidence for race/ethnic group differences in genetic pathways to glioma [31-33]. Furthermore, genome-wide association studies have identified several genetic susceptibility regions for glioma [34,35]. Given the genotype variability across race/ethnic groups , it is possible that variation in the frequency of susceptibility alleles across race/ethnic groups explains at least some of the race/ethnic group variation in glioma incidence, including the race/ethnic group heterogeneity in the relationship between glioma incidence and age. The commonality between GBM and non-GBM in race/ethnic group variation suggests that at least some of the susceptibility loci that may help explain race/ethnic group variation in glioma incidence would be the same for GBM and non-GBM, although some susceptibility loci appear to show specificity with respect to glioma subtype [37-39]….
“As with race/ethnic group variation, we observed an important commonality between GBM and non-GBM for sex. For each subtype, the incidence rate was higher for males than for females; this male excess of glioma is well known [2,3,5,6]. However, we did find the male/female RR to be somewhat higher for GBM (1.6) than for non-GBM (1.4), a result that was highly statistically significant. We previously suggested that the male/female difference in brain cancer incidence is biologically based , and that an explanation should be sought in genetic differences between males and females, sex hormones, and/or female reproductive factors . Now we would add that any explanation should take into account the difference in the male/female RR between glioma subtypes….”
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