linkfest – 04/19/15

a linkfest! =D

Experimental evolution reveals hidden diversity in evolutionary pathways“Our findings show that parallel genetic evolution is strongly biased by constraints and we reveal the genetic bases. From such knowledge, and in instances where new phenotypes arise via gene activation, we suggest a set of principles: evolution proceeds firstly via pathways subject to negative regulation, then via promoter mutations and gene fusions, and finally via activation by intragenic gain-of-function mutations. These principles inform evolutionary forecasting and have relevance to interpreting the diverse array of mutations associated with clinically identical instances of disease in humans.”

Selectionism Strikes Back! – from razib.

Genomes carry a heavy burden“Most people’s DNA contains genetic mutations that are potentially lethal to offspring…. Most people carry one or two genetic mutations that can cause early death or infertility in their offspring….”

World’s oldest stone tools discovered in Kenya“Researchers…say they have found the oldest tools made by human ancestors — stone flakes dated to 3.3 million years ago. That’s 700,000 years older than the oldest-known tools to date, suggesting that our ancestors were crafting tools several hundred thousand years before our genus Homo arrived on the scene. If correct, the new evidence could confirm disputed claims for very early tool use, and it suggests that ancient australopithecines like the famed ‘Lucy’ may have fashioned stone tools, too.”

Neanderthals manipulated the bodies of adults and children shortly after death

Neandertal flutes debunked – @dienekes’.

IQ prediction from structural MRI – from steve hsu. see also: MRI-Based Intelligence Quotient (IQ) Estimation with Sparse Learning.

New brain science shows poor kids have smaller brains than affluent kids – see also: Credit, where credit is due, to Lyndsey Layton and Income, brain, race: Prof Kimberly Noble replies and Howitzer or Katyusha: Reply to Prof Noble at dr. james thompson’s blog. – and see also: In today’s social science, wishing makes it so – from charles murray.

Gene study may explain why some remain quick thinkers“Genetic differences could explain why some people are quicker thinkers in middle age and later life, a study of data from 30,000 people suggests.” – see also: GWAS for executive function and processing speed suggests involvement of the CADM2 gene.

Prediction of brain age suggests accelerated atrophy after traumatic brain injury – h/t stuart ritchie! who tweeted: “Super-cool new paper on how to predict someone’s age just from a brain image (r = .92!)”

National Wealth and IQ at the Edge: American Exceptionalism, East Asian Mediocrity – anatoly karlin’s “big-ass blog on national wealth, IQ, HBD, East Asians, smart fractions, etc.” (~_^)

In the beginning was the Word – dr. james thompson blogs on the recent woodley et al. paper “By their words ye shall know them: Evidence of genetic selection against general intelligence and concurrent environmental enrichment in vocabulary usage since the mid 19th century.”

Born That Way – from greg cochran.

Female Same-Sex Attraction Revisited – from jayman.

Examining the S factor in Mexican states – from emil kirkegaard.

Sex differences and vulnerability: how the male-female divide affects health“[S]ome studies have shown that premature baby girls will grow up to suffer greater language deficits than premature boys, whereas boys exposed to certain prenatal toxins will suffer greater deficits to spatial skills than girls similarly exposed, but because sex differences were never the original focus of the research no one, until Geary, has united these sex specific developmental problems and placed them in evolution’s bigger picture. Geary explains, ‘Sexually selected traits are the first to go; for example, low level exposure to prenatal toxins will affect play in boys but not their IQ: if you don’t measure the right thing you will fail to detect underlying problems.'” – h/t steve stewart williams!

Men up to five times more likely to commit sex crimes than the average male if they have brother or father convicted of a sex offence – h/t claire lehmann! who tweeted: “Survey of 21,566 men convicted of sex crimes from 1973- 2009 has revealed a strong genetic component to sex offending.” – see also: Sexual offending runs in families: A 37-year nationwide study.

Aggressive-Antisocial Boys Develop Into Physically Strong Young Men“We found that males’ antisocial tendencies temporally precede their physical formidability. Boys, but not girls, with greater antisocial tendencies in childhood attained larger increases in physical strength between the ages of 11 and 17. These results support sexual selection theory, indicating an adaptive congruence between male-typical behavioral dispositions and subsequent physical masculinization during puberty.”

Childhood Self-Control and Unemployment Throughout the Life Span: Evidence From Two British Cohort Studies“Analyzing unemployment data from two nationally representative British cohorts (N = 16,780), we found that low self-control in childhood was associated with the emergence and persistence of unemployment across four decades. On average, a 1-SD increase in self-control was associated with a reduction in the probability of unemployment of 1.4 percentage points after adjustment for intelligence, social class, and gender.”

Enlisting in the Military: The Influential Role of Genetic Factors“Given that enlistment in the U.S. military is completely voluntary, there has been a great deal of interest in identifying the various factors that might explain why some people join the military, whereas others do not. The current study expanded on this line of literature by estimating the extent to which genetic and environmental factors explained variance in the liability for lifetime participation in the military. Analysis of twin pairs drawn from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health (Add Health) revealed that 82% of the variance was the result of genetic factors, 18% of the variance was the result of nonshared environmental factors, and none of the variance was accounted for by shared environmental factors.” – from brian boutwell et al.

Risk of Suicide Among US Military Service Members Following Operation Enduring Freedom or Operation Iraqi Freedom Deployment and Separation From the US Military“Findings do not support an association between deployment and suicide mortality in this cohort. Early military separation (<4 years) and discharge that is not honorable were suicide risk factors.” – h/t michael story!

Verbal ability as a predictor of political preferences in the United States, 1974–2012“[H]igher vocabulary scores are associated with a greater likelihood that people place themselves on the ideological and political spectrum and that they vote in presidential elections, but have only small relationships with liberal-versus-conservative self-identification.”

Do our genes tell us how to vote? Study of twins says they might

On the Malleability and Plasticity of the History of the Blank Slate and 21st Century Moral Philosophy Advances Boldly into the 19th Century – from helian.

More on the younger Franz Boas – from peter frost.

Surnames and Y-Chromosomal Markers Reveal Low Relationships in Southern Spain – ruh roh.

New study finds genetic predisposition for noise-induced hearing loss

New function of obesity gene revealed

The placebome: Where genetics and the placebo effect meet

Chimps That Hunt Offer a New View on Evolution“[A] 10-year study of chimpanzees in Senegal shows females playing an unexpectedly big role in hunting and males, surprisingly, letting smaller and weaker hunters keep their prey. The results do not overturn the idea of dominant male hunters, said Jill D. Pruetz of Iowa State University, who led the study. But they may offer a new frame of reference on hunting, tools and human evolution. ‘We need to broaden our perspective,’ she said.”

Upper Palaeolithic ritualistic cannibalism at Gough’s Cave (Somerset, UK): The human remains from head to toe“Our present analysis of the postcrania has identified a far greater degree of human modification than recorded in earlier studies. We identify extensive evidence for defleshing, disarticulation, chewing, crushing of spongy bone, and the cracking of bones to extract marrow. The presence of human tooth marks on many of the postcranial bones provides incontrovertible evidence for cannibalism.”

Yes, You Can Catch Insanity“A controversial disease revives the debate about the immune system and mental illness.” – pediatric autoimmune neuropsychiatric disorders or “PANDAS”.

Hatfield and McCoy Feud — The Real Thing

Colors help set body’s internal clock“[Mice] use light’s changing color to set their own clocks, a finding that researchers expect will hold for humans, too.”

The Myth of the Angry Atheist“[T]hese results support the idea that people believe atheists are angry individuals, but they do not appear to be angrier than other individuals in reality.”

Flowers Are “Darker” at Lower Latitudes“UV radiation may explain why plants and animals closer to the equator come in darker varieties.”

The Disease That Turned Us Into Genetic-Information Junkies – brief history on tay–sachs disease research.

Antibiotic Resistant Bacteria Could Predate Antibiotics“A South American tribe, called the Yanomami, which was isolated for about 11,000 years prior to 2009, have gut bacteria that carry antibiotic resistance genes, according to new research. The Yanomami’s microbiome is far more diverse than that of Europeans or North Americans, but it also contains antibiotic resistant genes, despite never having had antibiotics. The findings suggest antibiotic resistance predates antibiotics, although it is possible the Yanomami ingested naturally occurring antibiotics in soil at some point.” – see also: The microbiome of uncontacted Amerindians.

Rotherham Worker ‘Told To Give Girls To Abusers’“The ex-protection worker says she repeatedly raised concerns about men taking girls away but her boss told her to ‘let them go’.” – also: State wards being groomed for prostitution by paedophile gangs“Organised gangs of paedophiles are grooming state wards as young as 12 for prostitution. Veteran child protection workers have told the Herald Sun they are powerless to protect the children in their care and that the sexual exploitation of state wards is ‘endemic’…. Victoria Police has set up a taskforce to investigate a gang of Afghani men in Dandenong suspected of preying on teens in care.” – australia now. =/

bonus: Jurassic Park in real life: The race to modify the DNA of endangered animals and resurrect extinct ones“Professor Church has applied a sophisticated and revolutionary ‘gene editing’ technique known as Crispr and has managed to get it working in elephant cells to carry out 14 precise changes to its genome. ‘We are now working on in vitro organogenesis [organ formation] and embryogenesis [embryo formation],’ he told The Independent in an email.”

bonus bonus: Genome Digest – findings from genomes of mountain gorilla, pseudomonas aeruginosa, canary, bird flu strain, and leprosy bacterium.

bonus bonus bonus: Through This Chemical Loop, Dogs Win Our Hearts

(note: comments do not require an email. woof?)

response to scott alexander

scott has a post up — Five Case Studies On Politicization — in which he mentions the last post i wrote on rotherham, etc. — stop creating a climate of fear! i tried a couple of times to leave a comment there, but i keep getting an error message (“Not Acceptable!”), so since i’m absolutely lacking in patience, i’m just leaving my response here rather than to try and try again over there.

you might want to read scott’s whole post first. or at least section iii in which the gang-rape business is brought up. here’s my response:

@scott – “I have no doubt that her outrage is genuine. But I do have to wonder why she is outraged about this and not all of the other outrageous things in the world. And I do have to wonder whether the perfect fit between her own problems – trying to blog about race and genetics but getting flak from politically correct people – and the problems that made Rotherham so disastrous – which include police getting flak from politically correct people – are part of her sudden conversion to political activism.”

well, first of all, this wasn’t “sudden.” i’ve been writing about rotherham and the larger scandal of which it is a part since 2012. you’ve just missed it:

diversity über alles

secondly, why am i so particularly outraged about the pakistani gang-rape thing going on in britain (and very likely some other european countries — belgium for one)? i’m not sure — i’ve asked myself the same question. i think the reason is that it brings together multiple elements, each of which angers me on its own, but when added together absolutely enrages me. (i admit it — i become quite irrational when i think about rotherham, etc.) those elements are: the abuse of young children, ill-considered immigration policies, class “war” (or whatever you want to call it), and the seemingly willful ignorance of politically correct people. oh, and the lies told by the media, too, although that is sort-of a subset of political correctness really.

you might ask — in fact, you do — why don’t i get upset about other atrocities in the world. like, for example, FGM in sudan or egypt. well, while i do think that FGM is a terrible practice and people should stop it, i’m all for letting peoples decide how they want to conduct their affairs in their own countries. it’s no business of mine if in afghanistan or yanomamo society they marry girls off at age 12. it *is* my business when girls in the west are tortured — tortured — and pimped out by gangs of whomever. (you should know that i also lived not too far from rotherham for a handful of years, so i identify with the place and the people, as they say.)

however, and i think you may have missed this, the main target of my anger in that post was not the gang rapists or immigrants but the politically correct crowd, *specifically* the ones who scream RACIST!! at the drop of a hat. the social workers and police officers in rotherham were *very* clear on the fact that they held their tongues and did nothing out of fear of being labelled racists and, therefore, of losing their jobs. this is not a joke anymore. this is not a stupid argument on twitter or facebook where feathers might get ruffled, but everyone goes home pretty much unscathed. in this case, people got hurt. children got hurt. directly because of the climate of fear that politically correct idiots have created.

they need to know that they have blood on their hands this time. they need to start thinking about *exactly* what they’re achieving.

see also: sex and “the other”

(note: comments do not require an email.)

stop creating a climate of fear!

ok. listen up political correct people! if you’re someone who reflexively calls others “racists” or “neofascists” without first checking into whether or not they actually are, you need to STOP it, because you’re creating a climate of fear in which people are afraid to do their jobs.

and now i’m not talking about some academics sitting comfortably in their ivy towers, i’m talking about governmental agencies like THE POLICE and child welfare services. here’s where your pc moral posturing has gotten us today:

Revealed: How fear of being seen as racist stopped social workers saving up to 1,400 children from sexual exploitation at the hands of Asian men in just ONE TOWN

• Report found 1,400 children abused between 1997 and 2013 in Rotherham
• The figure is likely to be a conservative estimate of the true scale
• Victims terrorised with guns and doused in petrol and threatened with fire
• More than a third of the cases were already know to agencies
• Author of the report condemned ‘blatant’ failings by council’s leadership
Action blocked by political correctness as staff ‘feared appearing racist’
• Majority of victims described the perpetrators as ‘Asian’ men
• Leader of Rotherham Council has stepped down with immediate effect
• No council employees will receive disciplinary action, leaders state

don’t believe me? read the report from the independent investigator: Independent Inquiry into Child Sexual Exploitation in Rotherham (1997 – 2013) [pdf].

read about how girls (and some boys) as young as ELEVEN, many of whom were in care(!), were repeatedly gang raped, doped up, pimped out, sold out, trafficked, abused, and tortured (at least one girl was branded, although that may not have been in rotherham) — and then read how all of that was IGNORED by the child welfare(!) staff and police BECAUSE THEY WERE AFRAID OF BEING LABELLED RACISTS AND OF LOSING THEIR JOBS.

and if you’ve EVER called somebody a racist just because they said something politically incorrect, then you’d better bloody well read this report, because THIS IS ON YOU! this is YOUR doing! this is where your scare tactics have gotten us: over 1400 vulnerable kids systematically abused because YOU feel uncomfortable when anybody brings up some “hate facts.”

“hate facts” like this:

i don’t know what you want to do with that information, but you had better not even THINK about calling me a racist for pointing it out. enough is enough!

rotherham, the town in northern england where all this abuse has happened, is just the tip of the iceberg. the same systematic “grooming” of young girls and boys is happening in many other towns and cities in britain — we know this — the independent investigator knows this. and the authorities in those places are ALSO ignoring the problem for fear of being called racists.

this is YOUR fault, politically correct people — and i don’t care if you’re on the left or the right. YOU enabled this abuse thanks to the climate of fear you’ve created. thousands of abused girls — some of them maybe dead — on YOUR head.

think on that.
_____

_____

see also: ‘I didn’t want to appear racist’ is the ‘I was only obeying orders’ of our age from ed west.

(note: comments do not require an email.)

linkfest: 08/18/13

Oxytocin helps explain difference in social perception between men and women“‘The Love Hormone’, Oxytocin affects men and women differently in social contexts — in men it improves the ability to identify competitive relationships whereas in women it facilitates the ability to identify kinship.”

Watching Bacteria Evolve, With Predictable Results“[I]n experiments using bacteria and other fast-breeding organisms, scientists can replay evolution many times over in their labs. And the results of a new experiment published Thursday in the journal Cell Reports demonstrate — with movies — that evolution can be astoundingly predictable.”

Facial contrast and femininity“Women have higher luminous contrast between their facial skin and their lip/eye color. This contrast effect is influenced not only by degree of lightness but also by degree of redness.” – from peter frost.

Caste“An endogamous group that is exposed to unusual selective pressures – say because of their occupation – is going to change in response to those particular selective pressures.” – from greg cochran.

Cultural influences on IQ – from elijah armstrong.

Human cells respond in healthy, unhealthy ways to different kinds of happinessEudaimonic well-being was, indeed, associated with a significant decrease in the stress-related CTRA gene expression profile. In contrast, hedonic well-being was associated with a significant increase in the CTRA profile.”

Even George W. Bush Has Heart Disease“Contrary to what we’ve been led to believe, it is possible – and indeed quite likely – that heart disease is an inevitable consequence of living. In other words, lifestyle, including what you eat, drink, where you work, how much you work out, etc, may have little to nothing to do with your chances of developing heart disease.” – from jayman. (the most surprising thing that i learned from this post is that george w. bush actually has a heart! (~_^) )

Students Today “Hook Up” No More Than Their Parents Did in College

Rare footage of isolated Amazon tribe released“A newly released video captures images of the Kawahiva tribe, indigenous people living in Brazil’s Amazon jungle thought to have had very little contact with the outside world.”

World’s oldest temple built to worship the dog star“THE world’s oldest temple, Göbekli Tepe in southern Turkey, may have been built to worship the dog star, Sirius.”

These Carvings Are the Oldest Rock Art in America, by Thousands of Years“‘The true age of this rock art had not been known, but a new analysis suggests these petroglyphs are the oldest North America, dating back to between 10,500 and 14,800 years ago.’ The rocks occupy a spot in the Nevada desert once covered by Winnemucca Lake.”

Oldest Gaming Tokens Found in Turkey“Small carved stones unearthed in a nearly 5,000-year-old burial could represent the earliest gaming tokens ever found, according to Turkish archaeologists who are excavating early Bronze Age graves.” – they’re really neat!

Good-looking birds: Sexual attractiveness in the wild turkey“[A]ttractiveness in male turkeys is more a function of how they use their genes, rather than differences in the genes themselves.”

bonus: Britain’s biggest child sex grooming gang thought to have been busted after cops arrest 45 men – here we go again. =/

bonus bonus: Olinguinto: ‘Overlooked’ mammal carnivore is major discovery

bonus bonus bonus: Moment thief was caught on camera stealing village ‘honesty box’ to pay for homegrown fruit and veg – this happened in south wales and the thief was a guy named paul bujega bujega.

bonus bonus bonus bonus: Scientists Finally Pronounce Human Genome“‘It’s Gatcaatgaggtggacaccagaggc…’”

(note: comments do not require an email. the olinguito!)