linkfest: 05/27/14

Quick Questions for Peter and Rosemary Grant“There is widespread misunderstanding about evolution; that it occurs extremely slowly and therefore cannot be studied in a person’s lifetime. This was the view of Charles Darwin. Many biologists and others now know that this is not correct…. The idea that animals as large as birds might evolve before our eyes is not so well known, yet our study in the entirely natural world of Daphne Major island has revealed this does in fact happen when there is a change in the environment, and it takes place over a period as short as a year, and repeatedly.” – h/t billare!

Is DNA Multilingual?“The genetic code has traditionally been viewed as a universal set of instructions, exquisitely tuned to maintain robust stability and allow evolution-sustaining mutations. But the pervasive occurrence of recoded stop codons, and the backchannel crosstalk between microbes and viruses, paints a more intricate picture of multilingual genetic instructions.”

Jelly genome mystery“The uniqueness of this ctenophore’s nervous system leads Moroz and his team to argue that it must have evolved independently, after the ctenophore lineage branched off from other animals some 500 million years ago.”

Genomic divergence in a ring species complex“Ring species provide particularly clear demonstrations of how one species can gradually evolve into two, but are rare in nature…. Here we use genome-wide analyses to show that, although spatial patterns of genetic variation are currently mostly as expected of a ring species, historical breaks in gene flow have existed at more than one location around the ring, and the two Siberian forms have occasionally interbred.” – h/t razib!

Natural selection and infectious disease in human populations“The ancient biological ‘arms race’ between microbial pathogens and humans has shaped genetic variation in modern populations, and this has important implications for the growing field of medical genomics. As humans migrated throughout the world, populations encountered distinct pathogens, and natural selection increased the prevalence of alleles that are advantageous in the new ecosystems in both host and pathogens. This ancient history now influences human infectious disease susceptibility and microbiome homeostasis, and contributes to common diseases that show geographical disparities, such as autoimmune and metabolic disorders.”

High genetic differentiation between populations often driven by classic selective sweeps“‘We demonstrate that while sites of low differentiation represent sampling effects rather than balancing selection, sites showing extremely high population differentiation are enriched for positive selection events and that one half may be the result of classic selective sweeps. Among these, we rediscover known examples, where we actually identify the established functional SNP, and discover novel examples including the genes ABCA12, CALD1 and ZNF804, which we speculate may be linked to adaptations in skin, calcium metabolism and defense, respectively. Conclusions: We have identified known and many novel candidate regions for geographically restricted positive selection, and suggest several directions for further research.'” – @dienekes’.

Mendelian-Mutationism: The Forgotten Evolutionary Synthesis – h/t neuroskeptic! who tweeted: “Did geneticists ‘crack’ the secret of evolution much earlier than believed?”

this one’s for linton!: Why Marrying Your Cousin May Pay Off“In line with previous findings, the researchers found that among non-foraging societies, a couple’s relatedness was linked with having more surviving children. But among foraging societies, the opposite was true: More-closely related spouses had fewer surviving children. Furthermore, the more family intermarriage in a society, the greater the benefit of intermarrying on the number of children couples had. In other words, in societies in which people frequently married their relatives, intermarrying showed a stronger link to having more children.”

The Closest of Strangers“[I]dentical twins who are aunts and uncles invest more in caring for the children of their twins (their ‘genetic’ sons and daughters) than do fraternal twins.”

Why Do Honor Killings Defy the First Law of Homicide? And Will Smaller Families Lead to Fewer Of Them? – h/t tom farsides! – previously: inclusive inclusive fitness.

Genetic and educational assortative mating among US adults“We find that spouses are more genetically similar than two individuals chosen at random but this similarity is at most one-third the magnitude of educational similarity.”

Irish fair skin can be traced to India and the Middle East“A major new US study at Penn State University has found that Europeans’ light skin stems from a gene mutation from a single person who lived 10,000 years ago…. Keith Cheng from Penn State College of Medicine reported that one amino acid difference in the gene SLC24A5 is a key contributor to the skin color difference between Europeans and West Africans…. ‘The mutation in SLC24A5 changes just one building block in the protein, and contributes about a third of the visually striking differences in skin tone between peoples of African and European ancestry, he said…. The mutation, called A111T, is found in virtually everyone of European ancestry. A111T is also found in populations in the Middle East and Indian subcontinent, but not in high numbers in Africans. All individuals from the Middle East, North Africa, East Africa and South India who carry the A111T mutation share traces of the ancestral genetic code. According to the researchers, this indicates that all existing instances of this mutation originate from the same person.” – h/t 23andMe!

The puzzle of European hair, eye, and skin color“The physical appearance of Europeans seems to result from a selection pressure that acted primarily on women and only secondarily on men. This is especially true for highly visible traits on or near the face—the focus of visual attention.” – from peter frost.

The Dark Triad of Personality – special issue of Personality and Individual Differences. – h/t claire lehmann!

Heritability of brain volume change and its relation to intelligence“Human brain volumes change throughout life, are highly heritable, and have been associated with general cognitive functioning…. Results show that changes in volumes of total brain (mean=-6.4ml; -0.5% loss), cerebellum (1.4ml, 1.0% increase), cerebral white matter (4.4ml, 0.9% increase), lateral ventricles (0.6ml; 4.8% increase) and in surface area (-19.7cm2, -1.1% contraction) are heritable (h2=43%; 52%; 29%; 31%; and 33%, respectively). An association between IQ (available for 91 participants) and brain volume change was observed, which was attributed to genes involved in both the variation in change in brain volume and in intelligence. Thus, dynamic changes in brain structure are heritable and may have cognitive significance in adulthood.”

Cognitive abilities amongst the Sámi population“Lapps have an IQ around 100.8 are tilted towards visuospatial ability and away from verbal ability.” – from elijah armstrong, michael woodley the younger, and richard lynn. edit: original paper here on elijah’s blog! (^_^)

The Flynn Effect in a Nutshell – from elijah.

Does brain structure determine your political views?“‘People like to believe that their own political beliefs are rational, that they’re a sensible response to the world around them, so when we come along and say, “Maybe there are these predispositions, influential but perhaps not fully in your conscious awareness,” that’s not the way we like to view our own political beliefs.'” – h/t mr. robert ford!

Sex-Related Neuroanatomical Basis of Emotion Regulation Ability“Behavioral research has demonstrated that males have a higher capability of regulating their own and others’ emotions than females; however, little is known about the sex-specific brain mechanisms involved in emotion regulation ability…. we found the sex differences in the neuroanatomical basis of emotion regulation ability. Males showed a stronger positive relation between emotion regulation ability and regional gray matter volume (rGMV) in the right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex. In contrast, females demonstrated a stronger positive relation between emotion regulation ability and rGMV in an anatomical cluster that extends from the left brainstem to the left hippocampus, the left amygdala and the insular cortex.”

More Maps of the American Nations – from jayman.

Privilege and Morality“Our species isn’t good at nuance. The ‘privilege’ debate will and must take place in a morally charged context. It is not possible to sanitize the discussion by scrubbing it free of moral emotions. That is one of the many reasons why it is so important to understand what morality is and why it exists. It does not exist as a transcendental entity that happened to pop into existence with the big bang, nor does it exist because the Big Man upstairs wants it that way. It exists because it evolved.” – from helian.

Economic Growth & Human Biodiversity“Economic growth in lower-IQ countries does not invalidate either the reality of IQ differences between countries or the persistence of those disparities.” – from pseudoerasmus.

Good Fences: The Importance of Setting Boundaries for Peaceful Coexistence“Switzerland is recognized as a country of peace, stability and prosperity. This is surprising because of its linguistic and religious diversity that in other parts of the world lead to conflict and violence. Here we analyze how peaceful stability is maintained. Our analysis shows that peace does not depend on integrated coexistence, but rather on well defined topographical and political boundaries separating groups, allowing for partial autonomy within a single country. In Switzerland, mountains and lakes are an important part of the boundaries between sharply defined linguistic areas. Political canton and circle (sub-canton) boundaries often separate religious groups. Where such boundaries do not appear to be sufficient, we find that specific aspects of the population distribution guarantee either sufficient separation or sufficient mixing to inhibit intergroup violence according to the quantitative theory of conflict. In exactly one region, a porous mountain range does not adequately separate linguistic groups and that region has experienced significant violent conflict, leading to the recent creation of the canton of Jura.”

Was Territoriality Important in the Pleistocene? A Commentary on Johnson and Toft – @peter turchin’s.

Southern Europe is suspicious: the evolution of trust in the EU – ess and wvs results.

Trust and In-Group Favoritism in a Culture of Crime [pdf] – h/t ben southwood! who tweeted: “Areas in Palermo with high Mafia involvement have lower generalised trust but higher in-group favouritism.”

In dogs’ play, researchers see honesty and deceit, perhaps something like morality – woof!

What is Phonemic Diversity? — And Does It Prove the Out-of-Africa Theory? – h/t james winters!

How a Protestant spin machine hid the truth about the English Reformation“It seems that in 1533, the year of Henry’s break from Rome, traditional Catholicism was the religion of the vast majority of the country. And in most places it was absolutely thriving. It had developed a particularly English flavour, with a focus on the involvement of ordinary people in parish churches, village greens, plays, and pageants – much of which seemed to involve a good deal of community parties, dancing, and drinking. It is true that English religion in the early 1500s was not especially studious or erudite. The people did not spend hours a day in biblical studies, contemplation, and moralising in the manner of the more intense European reformers. But England had a nationally cohesive spirituality that was alive and exuberant, with a distinctly community feel…. The conclusion of this modern grassroots scholarship is that bulldozing the Catholic Church off the face of medieval England was not a ‘bottom up’ revolution in which Henry merely acquiesced to his people’s wishes by throwing off a widely hated foreign domination. To the contrary, it looks increasingly like Henry and his circle imposed the Reformation ‘top down’, unleashing 100 years of deep anger and alienation that was only overcome by sustained politicking and ruthless force.” – h/t william briggs!

bonus: “No Oxygen? No Problem!” Says Squid That Can Shut Down Its Metabolism – h/t kyle hill!

bonus bonus: A Theory on How Flightless Birds Spread Across the World: They Flew There

bonus bonus bonus: Chicken project gets off the ground“Effort aims to unravel the history of bird’s domestication.” – cluck!

(note: comments do not require an email. humble humboldt squid!)

hydrogen

hydrogen sm

“Hydrogen bonds

“Hydrogen bonds influence the structure of all living things. The double helix of DNA is held together by hydrogen bonds. The same is true of the structure of all the protein molecules of our body, from those in the largest organs, such as our muscles and our brain, to the smallest components of cells, such as enzymes. Hydrogen bonds are generally formed between molecules containing oxygen and nitrogen atoms, and occur when a hydrogen attached to one of these atoms in a molecule is attracted to an oxygen or nitrogen atom in another molecule. The two molecules are drawn close together by means of a so-called ‘hydrogen bond’.

“In living things the most imortant type of hydrogen bond is between nitrogen and oxygen; these are the ones that hold together the strands of DNA. The genetic code of DNA is represented by the letters A, C, G and T, which stand for the bases adenine, cytosine, guanine and thymine. A and T pair up by forming two hydrogen bonds, while C and G do so by forming three hydrogen bonds. Because these combinations are so well matched, when a strand of DNA separates in order to form a copy of itself, it does so exactly, because each A, C, G and T uses its hydrogen bonds to ensure a match with the right partner.

“Although hydrogen bonds are weak compared with normal bonds, having less than a quarter of the energy of these, there are many of them and quanity makes up for quality.”

Nature’s Building Blocks [pg. 189].

hydrogen.

linkfest – 07/01/13

a day late and (*hbd chick checks her wallet*) … yes, a dollar short!

World’s Oldest Genome Sequenced From 700,000-Year-Old Horse DNA – cool!

Bad Health at the Origins of Agriculture – from henry harpending! see also andrew badenoch from evolvify.

DNA Evidence for Strong Genome-Wide Pleiotropy of Cognitive and Learning Abilities“Genetic correlations were greater than 0.70 between general cognitive ability and language, reading, and mathematics, results that were highly similar to twin study estimates of genetic correlations. These results indicate that genes related to diverse neurocognitive processes have general rather than specific effects.” – via jayman!

Insulin differs between ethnicities, study finds“People have differing abilities to release and react to insulin depending on ethnicity, according to a new study from researchers at Lund University in Sweden, Stanford University and Kitasato University.” – see also previous linkfest.

I Don’t Feel Your Pain“A recent study shows that people, including medical personnel, assume black people feel less pain than white people…. In each experiment, the researchers found that white participants, black participants, and nurses and nursing students assumed that blacks felt less pain than whites.”original research article.

Studying Tumors Differently, in Hopes of Outsmarting Them“[C]ancer: It is an evolutionary disease.”

Accelerating adaptive evolution in humans“In my last post, I noted R.A. Fisher’s argument that a larger population leads to more mutations and greater potential for adaptive evolution. As human populations have undergone massive growth over recent tens of thousands of years, we would expect the evidence of this population growth to show in our genomes. In this post, I point to a couple of papers that look at this evidence.” – from jason collins.

Three-Parent IVF Set to Go Ahead in Britain

Complete mtDNA from Filipino groups – @dienekes’.

Still missing the point – more good stuff from peter frost on stephen jay gould.

The Search for Western Tribalism“Tribalism as clannishness light.” – from staffan!

How Long Can You Wait to Have a Baby?“[M]illions of women are being told when to get pregnant based on statistics from a time before electricity, antibiotics, or fertility treatment. Most people assume these numbers are based on large, well-conducted studies of modern women, but they are not.”

Grandparents effect spotted in British class system“Children’s eventual position in Britain’s class system is closely linked to that of their grandparents, not just their parents, academics say. And where parents have ‘dropped down’ the socio-economic ladder, the so-called ‘grandparents effect’ often pulls them back up, research suggests…. [A]mong men with both parents and grandparents in the highest socio-economic group, 80% stayed in those positions when they were adults. But among men whose parents had been upwardly mobile, only 61% stayed in the group they had been born in to.” – don’t they mean the “regression to the mean effect’? – via jason collins.

Study: People With a Lot of Self-Control Are Happier“Improbably enough, people who are better able to resist impulses report being more satisfied with their lives.”

Clues in the Cycle of Suicide“Every year, suicide peaks with the tulips and lilacs — increasing roughly 15 percent over the annual average to create one of psychiatry’s most consistent epidemiological patterns. It may seem perverse that the period of spring and early summer … should contain ‘a capacity for self-murder that winter less often has.’ Yet it does.”

A Test to Measure How Rational You Really Are – dysrationalia!

Does life have a purpose?“Nobody expects atoms and molecules to have purposes, so why do we still think of living things in this way?”

Study appears to overturn prevailing view of how the brain is wired

Sardinian family’s tip for a long life: minestrone – and good longevity genes! (~_^) – “Luca Deiana, a professor of clinical biochemistry at the university of Sassari in Sardinia, who has studied some 2500 centenarians on the island since 1996, was quoted by Corriere della Sera at the time as saying the longevity of local inhabitants was influenced by genetics along with environmental, nutritional and lifestyle habits.”

Chilean Mummies Reveal Ancient Nicotine Habit“The hair of mummies from the town of San Pedro de Atacama in Chile reveals the people in the region had a nicotine habit spanning from at least 100 B.C. to A.D. 1450.”

Mysterious Pair Buried With Flowers — Oldest Example Yet“The pair — an adult male and an adolescent of undetermined sex — belonged to the primitive Natufian culture, which flourished between 15,000 and 11,600 years ago in an area that is now Israel, Jordan, Lebanon, and Syria.”

bonus: Judge jails depraved sex gang for 95 years after they committed grotesque abuse on girls as young as 11 – good!

bonus bonus: Foreign reporter raped in Tahrir Square – again. see also Arab Spring Unleashes Illiberal Repressive Masses from parapundit.

bonus bonus bonus: The Divided States of America, in 25 Charts“As America approaches its 237th birthday, it’s feeling quite a bit more ‘pluribus’ than ‘unum’…” – gee, i wonder why?

bonus bonus bonus bonus: First Pictures: Peru’s Rare, Unlooted Royal Tomb

bonus bonus bonus bonus bonus: India: If you have casual sex, you are legally married – ruh roh.

bonus bonus bonus bonus bonus bonus: Take the Impossible “Literacy” Test Louisiana Gave Black Voters in the 1960s – it’s not impossible, but it’s not easy either. esp. given that not all of the questions are worded very clearly. =/

bonus bonus bonus bonus bonus bonus bonus: The scientific feud that ended in an execution

bonus bonus bonus bonus bonus bonus bonus bonus: Leeches from the Underworld Don’t Want Your Blood

bonus bonus bonus bonus bonus bonus bonus bonus bonus: Awesome astronomical board game from 1804

(note: comments do not require an email. the tapir’s PREHENSILE penis! good lord.)

human leukocyte antigen (hla) haplotypes and human biodiversity

*update 10/27: for more on human leukocyte antigens (hla’s), see chris davies’ blog right here! (^_^)
_____

over the past few months, commenter chris davies has left several interesting comments here on the blog about hla haplotypes (see here and here and here and here for example) — something about which, like so very many things, i know absolutely NOTHING.

i asked chris if he’d help alleviate my ignorance by writing a post on the topic, and he has graciously obliged (thanks, chris!). so, without further ado, here’s chris’ introduction to hla!:

An Introduction to HLA (Human Leukocyte Antigens)

I would like to thank HBD Chick, who recently asked me if I wanted to write a guest post here about Human Leukocyte Antigens (HLA). I have been a reader of this blog for several months now, and I really enjoy it. This blog is among the most innovative of the HBD-related blogs out there and takes a completely different approach to the subject. So it is a pleasure to write a post here, as I don’t write a blog myself.

In the comments section on some posts here recently I have talked about ‘HLA haplotypes’. I have had an interest in HLA haplotypes for a few years, following discussions with a molecular biologist who writes (or rather wrote) in newsgroups including Usenet. But what are ‘HLA haplotypes’, and more importantly what is their usefulness or relevance to those of us with an interest in ‘HBD’?

‘HLA’ means Human Leukocyte Antigen. The HLA system is simply the name given to the human version of the Major Histocompatibility Complex (MHC). MHC genes are found in most vertebrates, and this group of genes can be found on chromosome 6.

HLA genes are important in immune function and disease defence. There are three classes: Class I (A,B,C); Class II (DP, DM, DOA, DOB, DQ, DR); and Class III. All play different roles.

In addition to conferring resistance or susceptibility to various diseases and conditions (eg autoimmune diseases, such as type I diabetes), they are also vitally important in organ and bone marrow transplants. For example, if a donor is not a close enough match in terms of HLA, an organ could be rejected. Because diversity of HLAs in human populations is a part of disease resistance, it is very uncommon to find two unrelated individuals with identical HLA molecules at all loci.

In addition, it has been claimed that HLA may play a role in human mate selection through people’s perception of the odor of other people.

HLA haplotypes are like strings of HLA genes by chromosome, with one being inherited maternally and the other paternally. A multigene haplotype is a set of inherited alleles covering several genes, or gene-alleles. Common multigene haplotypes are generally the result of identity by descent from a common ancestor. As distance from the ancestor increases, chromosomal recombination causes multigene haplotypes to fragment.

An example of an HLA haplotype is shown below:

A*01:01 ; C*07:01 ; B*08:01 ; DRB1*03:01 ; DQA1*05:01 ; DQB1*02:01
[Which by serotyping, is more simply: A1-Cw7-B8-DR3-DQ2].

This particular haplotype btw is found at high frequency among people of North-West European descent, including Irish, British, Dutch, Germans, Scandinavians, and of course a high percentage of Americans and Australians. It is associated with autoimmune disorders like coeliac disease, and allergic diseases like hayfever and asthma.

In addition to medical use, HLA haplotypes can also be used as a means of tracing migrations in the human population as they are like a fingerprint of an event that has occurred in evolution.

So alongside Y Chromosome DNA and Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) markers, HLA haplotypes are useful tools for molecular anthropologists in determining evolutionary links between ancient and modern human populations. They also help to determine closeness of relationships between or within populations, and commonality of geographical origin between groups. Therefore patterns of migration and settlement can be traced, giving insight into how contemporary populations have formed and progressed over time.

Because the HLA system is under selection, diversity in HLA should be looked at in conjunction with other markers like Y-DNA and mtDNA in building a bigger picture when tracing migrations of modern humans.

However, HLA has several advantages over Y-DNA and mtDNA. mtDNA is often biased towards the founders in a core population and can show a punctuated distribution, while Y-DNA is biased more towards relatively recent migrations, and with both of these markers the effects of genetic drift are more rapid. With HLA there is intense heterozygous selection which works to preserve diversity.

Also with HLA, one tends not to see a punctuated distribution of haplotypes across geographical regions between groups, but rather one sees a fluidity of migrations tracing back to their original source population. Examples of this occur when one looks at diversity of HLA in northern Africa, which appears to be the source for a number of haplotypes that migrated into Europe in the Holocene. This picture is less clear from looking at mtDNA or Y-DNA data only.

Finally, the other advantage of HLA is the sheer volume of data available. [See: www.allelefrequencies.net]. The numbers of people worldwide who have been typed for HLA are huge. There are nearly 22 million donors and blood cord units in the BMDW (Bone Marrow Donors Worldwide) database, encompassing many different ethnicities and nationalities with hundreds of thousands of HLA alleles and extended haplotypes identified. Y-DNA and mtDNA cannot offer this volume of data. Whether used for tracing ancient human migrations, or researching diseases in different populations, this data can be extremely helpful.

The association of HLA haplotypes in populations with certain diseases in Western countries is interesting to consider from an HBD perspective. For example, if resistance or susceptibility to obesity, heart disease, diabetes, breast cancer, etc. are all affected by HLA type, then there could be wildly varying outcomes between different population groups, in addition to the effects of environmental or lifestyle factors.

This in turn could have serious implications. For example, certain disease-related charities’ fund-raising campaigns are aimed at convincing the general public to donate cash on the basis that everyone is almost equally at risk from that particular disease, when different ethnic groups living in the same country with the same lifestyle may often vary in risk considerably from very high risk down to very low risk, with HLA type being an important determining factor. But the charity may not publicise this information in order not to jeopardise their fund-raising. This, I should stress, is speculation on my part however.

If want to find out more about Human Leukocyte Antigens, please refer to some of the sources listed below:

References
– The Allele Frequency Net Database (AFND). A database and online repository for immune gene frequencies in worldwide populations: [www.allelefrequencies.net]
“Tracking Human Migrations by the Analysis of the Distribution of HLA Alleles, Lineages and Haplotypes in Closed and Open Populations.” [Fernandez Vina, M. et al, 2012].
“HLA 1991: Proceedings of the Eleventh International Histocompatibility Workshop and Conference” (Volumes I & II) [Kimoshi Tsuji; Miki Aizawa; Takehiko Sasazuki] Oxford Science Publications, 1991.
– “HLA-Net: A European Network of the HLA Diversity for Histocompatibility, Clinical Transplantation, Epidemiological and Population Genetics.” [www.hla-net.eu].
– “AHPD: Analysis of HLA Population Data to Reconstruct the History of Modern Humans and Infer the Role of Natural Selection.” [geneva.unige.ch/ahpd].
“Challenging Views on the Peopling of East Asia: the Story According to HLA Markers.” [Di D, Sanchez-Mazas A.]. Am J Phys Anthropol. 2011 May; 145(1):81-96.doi:10.1002/ajpa.21470.Epub2011Jan4. PMID:21484761 [Pubmed – indexed for MEDLINE].
– Wikipedia: “Human Leukocyte Antigen.”
– Wikipedia: “Major Histocompatibility Complex.”

(note: comments do not require an email. gene map of the human leukocyte antigen (hla) region!)

linkfest – 04/22/12

Why Kenyans Make Such Great Runners: A Story of Genes and Cultures – somebody’s picked up on the phrase human biodiversity! check out the last sentence in paragraph two. (^_^) h/t to luke for pointing out the article to me!

Why Chimpanzees Kill“[K]ills occurred in most of the chimpanzee communities and that victims tended to be infant and adult males outside the killer’s social group. Most of the killings were conducted by groups of males…. What did appear to be a factor was the number of males in a group: the higher the number of males in a group, the higher the number of kills.”

People prefer male politicians with lower voices – @the inductivist.

Analysis of surname origins identifies genetic admixture events undetectable from genealogical records – @race/history/evolution notes.

Impact of Carnivory on Human Development and Evolution Revealed by a New Unifying Model of Weaning in Mammals“Since early weaning yields shorter interbirth intervals and higher rates of reproduction, with profound effects on population dynamics, our findings highlight the emergence of carnivory as a process fundamentally determining human evolution.”

Women focus on their children, not their men, as they age – of course. @dennis’.

Women Are Twice As Likely To Hit The Gas By Mistake – that’d be pretty funny if it weren’t so dangerous.

bonus: When Memory Commits an Injustice“[W]hen it comes to human memory, more deliberation is often dangerous.”

bonus bonus: Evolution seen in ‘synthetic DNA’“Researchers have succeeded in mimicking the chemistry of life in synthetic versions of DNA and RNA molecules. The work shows that DNA and its chemical cousin RNA are not unique in their ability to encode information and to pass it on through heredity.”

bonus bonus bonus: The Emergence and Early Evolution of Biological Carbon-Fixation“Here we reconstruct the complete early evolutionary history of biological carbon-fixation, relating all modern pathways to a single ancestral form.”

(note: comments do not require an email. orwell court. heh.)

linkfest – 08/14/11

Intelligence tests highlight importance of genetic differences“DNA study links variations in intelligence to large numbers of genes, each with a small effect on individual brainpower” – via steve sailer.

You can count on this: Math ability is inborn“Do some of us just arrive in the world with better math skills than others? It seems we do….”

Psychology and its national styles

“What about me?” Perceptions of exclusion and Whites’ reactions to multiculturalism“Overall, results show that the purportedly ‘inclusive’ ideology of multiculturalism is not perceived as such by Whites.” – via the inductivist.

World survey links religion and happiness — for some“[I]n societies under stress, those who are religious outnumber – and are happier than – their nonreligious counterparts. Where peace and plenty are the norm, however, religious participation is lower and people are happier whether or not they are religious….”

Why one waist-size guide doesn’t fit all ethnic backgrounds

Why the rich ‘are such a selfish, less empathetic and less altruistic lot’

bonus: It’s the Economy, Dummkopf! by michael lewis.

bonus bonus: Building Blocks of DNA Found in Meteorites from Space

(note: comments do not require an email. sith penguin.)

i can name that pop in 17 strs!

well, i can’t, but the popaffiliator folks can – with an 86% success rate.

by plugging just seventeen short tandem repeats found in someone’s dna into the popaffiliator calculator, you can work out (with an 86% success rate) whether they’re east asian, eurasian, sub-saharan african, north african, near eastern, central-south american or north american.

yeah. you read that right seventeen. and 86%. that’s definitely better than chance. waaaaay better than chance. if i only had such a success rate at the track.

but, you know, we all share 99.9% of our genes and race is just a social construct and blah blah blah blah blah….

more @ dienekes’ blog.

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