linkfest – 11/16/14

look! a linkfest! (^_^)

Bayesian analyses of Yemeni mitochondrial genomes suggest multiple migration events with Africa and Western Eurasia

37,000-year-old Russian skeleton has Neanderthal DNA that’s gone missing“Sequences present in its genome haven’t been found in modern human populations.” – see also Remix from greg cochran. – see also Genome of Kostenki-14, an Upper Paleolithic European (Seguin-Orlando, Korneliussen, Sikora, et al. 2014) from dienekes.

Humans Would Beat Neanderthals in Marathon

Different Ways to Color a Cat – from razib. – h/t billare! who tweeted: “Progenitors of modern Europeans were fairly light-skinned–why did a 2nd bout of selection leave its tell-tale marks?”

Admixture in the Americas: Introduction, partial correlations and IQ predictions based on ancestry – from emil kirkegaard.

Our Futile Efforts to Boost Children’s IQ“How can parenting and socioeconomic status play such minor roles in determining IQ, when scholars on all sides of the nature-nurture debate agree that somewhere around half of the variation in IQ is environmental? The short answer is that the environment that affects IQ doesn’t consist of the advantages that most people have in mind — parents who talk a lot to their toddlers, many books in in the house for the older children, high-quality schools and the like. Instead, studies over the past two decades have consistently found that an amorphous thing called the “nonshared” environment accounts for most (in many studies, nearly all) of the environmentally grounded variation. Scholars are still trying to figure out what features of the nonshared environment are important. Peers? Events in the womb? Accidents? We can be sure only of this: The nonshared environment does not lend itself to policy interventions intended to affect education, parenting, income or family structure.” – from charles murray. – h/t mr. mangan, esq!

Results of a “GWAS Plus:” General Cognitive Ability Is Substantially Heritable and Massively Polygenic – h/t emil kirkegaard!

Does neural crest development drive domestication syndrome?“Altered neural crest development could be the reason mammals change in oddly consistent ways during domestication. As first noted by Darwin more than 140 years ago, domestic mammals tend to share certain characteristics—a suite of traits called the domestication syndrome.”

‘Darwin’s Dilemma’ May Be Solved“Scientists following two different lines of evidence have just published research that may help resolve ‘Darwin’s dilemma,’ a mystery that plagued the father of evolution until his death more than a century ago. Biologists and geologists have been puzzled for decades over why life began so early on this planet, and then took so long to get interesting.”

A new study pieces together the puzzle of insect evolution“A new study of insect evolution — the largest of its kind ever undertaken — has uncovered some surprising new information, confirmed some long-held hypotheses and may lead researchers toward a more comprehensive understanding of evolution. One hundred scientists from 10 countries worked together to examine 144 insect species. Their goal was to create an insect ‘family tree’ and establish a timeline of insect evolution. Their results were published recently in the journal Science.” – cool!

More evidence that certain versions of some genes can encourage violence

Facial structure predicts goals, fouls among World Cup soccer players“The scientists studied the facial-width-to-height ratio (FHWR) of about 1,000 players from 32 countries who competed in the 2010 World Cup. The results, published in the journal Adaptive Human Behavior and Physiology, showed that midfielders, who play both offense and defense, and forwards, who lead the offense, with higher FWHRs were more likely to commit fouls. Forwards with higher FWHRs also were more likely to score goals or make assists.”

Mental health: Depression needs large human-genetics studies“To understand the molecular mechanisms of depression, collect genetic data from more than 100,000 people, says Steven Hyman.”

Geneticists tap human knockouts“On average, every person carries mutations that inactivate at least one copy of 200 or so genes and both copies of around 20 genes.”

The Inexorable Progress of Science: Archaeology“With a very limited set of clues, smart guys managed to get key facts about European prehistory roughly correct almost 90 years ago . With tremendously better tools, better methods, vastly more money, more data, etc, archaeologists (most of them) drifted farther and farther from the truth.” – from greg cochran.

How Your Facebook Updates Reveal Your Personality“Extroverts tend to use words like love, tonight, party, excited and amazing. Several length variants of the word soooo and ‘text speak’ terms like lovin and ur, are more often found on extroverts’ updates. In general the extrovert word cloud is sloppy enough to make any ‘Grammar Nazi’ red in the face. When we come to introverts, use of the word computer was one of the biggest giveaways. Posting status updates about Internet, and to a lesser extent anime, doctor who, and books, were also predictive of introversion.” – from neuroskeptic.

The contribution of additive genetic variation to personality variation: heritability of personality“[W]e found that approximately 52% of animal personality variation was attributable to additive genetic variation.”

The genetics of impulsivity: evidence for the heritability of delay discounting – h/t ben southwood! who tweeted: “Impulsivity is 55% heritable at age 18.”

We are not equally empathic – from peter frost.

He’s Definitely a Liberal—Just Check Out His Brain Scan“[W]e’ve had solid indications for a while now that our ideological biases are based, in large part, on the biology of our brains…. Of course, we’d like to think we came to our core beliefs through a process of rational reflection and discussion — or, at the very least, as a psychological reaction to the influence of our parents and peers…. But the profound influence of basic brain biology has just been re-affirmed in a new research paper, which found liberals and conservatives can be easily identified through fMRI scans…. ‘Remarkably,’ writes a team led by P. Read Montague of the Virginia Tech Carilion Research Institute, ‘brain responses to a single disgusting stimulus were sufficient to make accurate predictions about an individual subject’s political ideology.'”

The Most Heritable Gut Bacterium is… Wait, What is That?“By studying 416 pairs of British twins, Julia Goodrich and colleagues from Cornell University have identified the gut microbes whose presence is most strongly affected by our genes.”

Microbiome science threatened by contamination“Non-sterile sequencing returns rogue results in dilute microbe samples.”

Global IQ and health – from dr. james thompson.

Book Review: The Ten Thousand Year Explosion (2009) by Greg Cochran and Henry Harpending – from staffan.

The ecology of religious beliefs“Both comparative and experimental evidence indicate that beliefs in moralizing high gods promote cooperation among humans, a behavioral attribute known to correlate with environmental harshness in nonhuman animals. Here we combine fine-grained bioclimatic data with the latest statistical tools from ecology and the social sciences to evaluate the potential effects of environmental forces, language history, and culture on the global distribution of belief in moralizing high gods (n = 583 societies). After simultaneously accounting for potential nonindependence among societies because of shared ancestry and cultural diffusion, we find that these beliefs are more prevalent among societies that inhabit poorer environments and are more prone to ecological duress.”

Edvard Westermarck on Morality: The Light Before the Darkness Fell and Post-Darwinian, “Evolutional” Theories of Morality in the 19th Century – from helian.

Genes contribute to behavior differences between fierce and friendly rats“Genes active in the brain implicated in differences in rats selected for aggression or tameness”

Intimidating chimpanzee males are more likely to become fathers – ruh roh. – h/t steve stewart williams!

Marriage Records Reveal Patterns of Korean Migration Through the Centuries

What Edward Luttwak Doesn’t Know About Ancient China (Or a Short History of Han-Xiongnu Relations), pt. 1 and What Edward Luttwak Doesn’t Know About Ancient China (Or a Short History of Han-Xiongnu Relations), pt. 2 – from t.greer.

There’s Something About Teutonics – from those who can see.

An extremely low-density human population exterminated New Zealand moa“Here we show that the Polynesian population of New Zealand would not have exceeded 2,000 individuals before extinction of moa populations in the habitable areas of the eastern South Island. During a brief (<150 years) period and at population densities that never exceeded ~0.01 km(-2), Polynesians exterminated viable populations of moa by hunting and removal of habitat. High human population densities are not required in models of megafaunal extinction."

A Gene by Any Other Name“What is the logic in naming human genes?”

bonus: Keeping Mates Close and Competition Out in an Ocean Sponge

bonus bonus: Here’s Why Other People’s Farts Smell Way Worse Than Your Own – we cover *all* aspects of human biodiversity here on the hbd chick blog! (~_^)

(note: comments do not require an email. an ocean sponge.)

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25 Comments

  1. 1. According to Maori oral tradition NZ moa were killed on their nests and middens show their legs were disproportionately favoured for consumption. Given common Austronesian dietary preferences its likely that unborn moa chicks were the resource actually being targeted and the drumsticks a bycatch. No k-selected species can survive targeting at a stage of its life cycle before it has passed on its genes.

    2. Has anyone a clue as to who these ‘Basal Eurasians’ are?

    Reply

  2. “an amorphous thing called the “nonshared” environment”: amorphous is one word for it. Isn’t it just the catch-all to which is assigned anything left over after inheritance is accounted for? In other words, “environment” is the wrong word because it carries an implication for which there is no evidence. Why not call it “God Knows What”?

    Reply

  3. “the facial-width-to-height ratio (FHWR) of about 1,000 players”: did they break them down into a few racial groups and study each separately? If not, why not?

    Reply

  4. “Microbiome science threatened by contamination”: oh dearie me! Mind you, doesn’t every scientist with a critical intellect have a worry at the back of his mind “Oh Lord have I overlooked something important?” Over the years, seminars taught me that many scientists reckon that a complete defence from such worries is provided by uncritically accepting whatever is “mainstream” in their discipline. (From which I conclude that an uncritical acceptance of what purports to be “science” is foolish.)

    Reply

  5. As I read Razib Khan, he says or tries to imply that the genes for conferring like light eyes and hair are actually not for those things at all and may actually be for a minor effect on light skin. I think this is because he resists sexual selection as an explanation for hair and eye colours and implicitly suggest they are a side effect of some genes for skin lightening. (He has been saying that more or less since 2007).

    But he is now contradicting himself, because a few posts before he claimed ” it seems that during the Ice Age anatomically modern European humans did not fit the Nordic ideal of tall, blonde, and gracile”. This is crapola because the estimates for the 2 major skin lightening genes are both around 15,000 years ago and the first impacted wisdom tooth is dated to around the same time.

    If red hair confers noticeably lighter skin while blonde hair is more common than red hair, vitamin D synthesis couldn’t explain red hair even if redheads’ fair skin gave them more vitamin D synthesis, which it doesn’t. The fair skinned synthesis no more less vitamin D for a given amount of UVB exposure ‘no significant correlations were found with constitutive or facultative skin pigmentation’. A large British study found actual lower vitamin D levels in the fair skinned at least partly because it seems ‘FAIR-skinned individuals also appear to be less able to make and process vitamin D in the body, regardless of how long they sit in the sun for’

    No more and probably less vitamin D with red hair so what is the use of red hair

    “Previous research had shown that the melanocortin-1 receptor (MC1R) gene plays a key role in protecting melanocytes from UV-induced DNA damage.Under normal circumstances MC1R binds to and protects another gene well known for its ability to suppress tumours, PTEN. The new work demonstrates that the red hair version of MC1R no longer acts as a PTEN guardian.
    ‘As a result, upon UVB exposure, we saw an increased destruction of PTEN in the mutated pigment cells,’ said Dr Wei….: ‘Together, our findings provide a possible molecular mechanism as to why red-haired individuals harboring MC1R mutations are much more susceptible to UV-induced skin damage than individuals with darker skin, resulting in a 10 to 100-fold higher frequency of melanoma.’”

    UVB is the wavelength that makes vitamin D. Think about that. Better still, red hair gives you cancer even if you stay in the dark

    Red human hair pheomelanin is a potent pro-oxidant mediating UV-independent contributory mechanisms of melanomagenesis “The highest incidence of melanoma in red haired individuals is attributed to the synthesis and phototoxic properties of pheomelanin pigments. Recently, pheomelanin has also been implicated in UV-independent pathways of oxidative stress”

    There is no end to the disadvantages of red hair.

    Elevated Plasma Levels of the Pituitary Hormone Cthrc1 in Individuals with Red Hair but Not in Patients with Solid Tumors” Cthrc1 levels in patients suffering from conditions that have an inflammatory or infectious component, e.g. fever, yeast and urinary tract infections, thrush, etc., and even diabetes can be included in this category [19]. In this context it should be mentioned that the promoter region of Cthrc1 contains a putative NF-κB binding site located within 300 base pairs upstream of the transcriptional start site, however, its function has until now not been examined. Combined these findings suggest a link between Cthrc1 levels and inflammation.We identify Cthrc1 as a marker for activated stromal cells. Cthrc1 is a pituitary hormone with significantly elevated levels in subjects carrying variant alleles of the melanocortin-1 receptor as wells as in patients with inflammatory conditions.”

    So, the selection pressure for the appearance of Europeans was nothing to do with vitamin D, was something that acted on aspects of appearance like making facial bones more delicate, and lightening skin while making hair and eye colour diverse, and it was strong around 15,000 years ago.

    Reply

  6. Got a bit mixed there . Here is where I think there is a big contradiction between what I think Razib is saying about genes making for light eyes being inferior skin lightening genes, with the light eyes as a side effect, one that may not have come through to expression in ice age people and his recent claim that there is good reason to think there was no selection for light skin at all, and the light skin genes just hitchhiked

    (“if the indigenous populations of Europe were already relatively light skinned why did the new alleles rise in frequency so rapidly?” and “Basically, if the ancient North Eurasian populations had lighter skin due to their own alleles, why are the new light skin alleles sweeping up in frequency so strongly after admixture? (for Europeans, I’m thinking SLC45A2 and SLC24A5 in particular). Perhaps the selective sweeps were not driven by light skin at all?”)

    Now that is just silly. what was SLC45A2 supposed to have been selected for, its effect on teeth?

    Reply

  7. @dearieme – “Isn’t it just the catch-all to which is assigned anything left over after inheritance is accounted for? In other words, ‘environment’ is the wrong word because it carries an implication for which there is no evidence. Why not call it ‘God Knows What’?”

    precisely! (the tag that i now use for this issue is: “nature and…we dunno!” (~_^) see the tags for this post, for example.)

    Reply

  8. “Bayesian analyses of Yemeni mitochondrial genomes suggest multiple migration events with Africa and Western Eurasia”

    About one quarter of HLA haplotypes in the Omanis appear to be of recent African origin, most of the rest appear to be typically Arabian. As far as Yemen goes I only have data from a small sample of Yemeni Jews in Israel, I could do with some more representative data from Yemenis.

    Reply

  9. @ Moa – “2. Has anyone a clue as to who these ‘Basal Eurasians’ are?”

    At least in the cases of Stuttgart, Oetzi, Sardinians, etc. I’m inclined to believe some sort of dual Northern African/West Asian origin, perhaps with an origin at least partially in a Neolithic green Sahara or in the Nile Valley.

    Looking at HLA data from Sardinians, a population which has a very large so-called ‘Basal Eurasian’ component identified in these whole genome studies, they seem to share specific HLA haplotypes with Europeans but also others with West Asians, Berbers, Egyptians, West Africans, Sudanese, and Kenyans that are found at much higher frequencies and with higher diversity of recombinants in those populations relative to Europeans pointing to origins in proximal regions.

    Reply

  10. cool list as always

    “The ecology of religious beliefs – “Both comparative and experimental evidence indicate that beliefs in moralizing high gods promote cooperation among humans”

    High IQ, low trust people living in a homogenous group who came to believe that a higher level of cooperation would be beneficial to all of them might consent to trusted judge-kings having power to enforce pro-cooperation rules (early priests were also often the judges e.g. druids, and kings were also judges). So a belief in a divine judge-king would be a way of achieving the same thing.

    In fact judge-gods might once have been a real judge-priest or judge-king in that population’s past.

    .

    “Humans Would Beat Neanderthals in Marathon”

    As my guess is neanderthals were likely much stronger than humans I’d bet the humans could sprint faster too :)

    .

    “Facial structure predicts goals, fouls among World Cup soccer players”

    The soccer world cup winning countries have pretty much all come from the coastal fringe of western Eurasia coast and their offshoots on the other side of the Atlantic.

    Jus sayin.

    .

    @dearieme

    “did they break them down into a few racial groups and study each separately? If not, why not?”

    The facial ratio likely points to a deeper level imo i.e. the cause is x and different population groups have differing proportions of x.

    .

    @Moa

    “1. No k-selected species can survive targeting at a stage of its life cycle before it has passed on its genes.”

    Quite and this applies to humans too hence the ongoing effect of gang cultures in the urban blight that target the young.

    “2. Has anyone a clue as to who these ‘Basal Eurasians’ are?”

    I think there are two strands that register as one depending on the scale you are looking at: an OoA (out of Arabia) one that spread to the far east and an OoSEA (out of SEAsia) one that derived from the first in S/SEAsia and then back-migrated west so the two are closely related. The border zone between the two soon after the bulk of the back migration might be a line running through Arabia, around the Med. coast and then up the Atlantic coast to bits of the Baltic.

    .

    @Sean

    “@Sean

    If red hair confers noticeably lighter skin while blonde hair is more common than red hair, vitamin D synthesis couldn’t explain red hair even if redheads’ fair skin gave them more vitamin D synthesis, which it doesn’t. No more and probably less vitamin D with red hair so what is the use of red hair”

    I’m not opposed to the sexual selection idea but I think you may be discounting additive effects.

    What if red hair, lighter eyes and *slightly* lighter skin conferred an advantage among one population and another eye lightening and slightly skin lightening adaptation conferred a similar advantage to a 2nd population (i forget the gene’s name – the Irish black hair and blue eyes gene?) and then a 3rd population developed a major skin lightening gene.

    Each of these genes might be advantageous *on their own* but in combination might be too much.

    So say for the sake of argument you had the black hair / blue eye gene in a maritime distribution along the Med and Atlantic coasts and the red hair / green eye gene in the interior both with minor skin lightening then separately or even together they might be fine but then if you add the major SLC skin lightening genes from the farmers maybe it becomes too much.

    (and possibly a 4th component coming from East Asian pigmentation changes which has a different effect when in combination with western ones.)

    In that case sexual selection

    would (understandably imo) act as a *brake* against negative selection.

    .

    @Sean

    “Now that is just silly. what was SLC45A2 supposed to have been selected for, its effect on teeth?”

    I may have misunderstood it but I read that post of Razib’s completely differently i.e. literally “what was SLC45A2 supposed to have been selected for?” Question mark intended.

    Reply

  11. “More evidence that certain versions of some genes can encourage violence”

    From the article linked

    “Dr Tiihonen and his colleagues divided their convict volunteers into those who had never committed a crime of violence (defined as homicide, attempted homicide and battery—though sexually motivated assault was excluded, to avoid confusing the data) and those who had.”

    Although that makes sense they might want to consider refining their definition of violent crime later.

    1. Thefts that involve invading someone’s personal space are diluted violent crimes imo and should correlate in the same ways e.g. burglary, bag-snatching, street robbery, pick pocketing.

    2. I agree that sexual violence involving younger men would likely muddy the picture because of things like peer pressure but older serial rapists are imo just a safer (for them) and/or more diluted version of serial killer and should have pretty much the same profile.

    .

    “Something like half the population has a low-activity MAOA allele, and, obviously, the overwhelming majority of them are not violent criminals.

    Dr Tiihonen and his colleagues estimate, on the basis of their study, that pertinent alleles of MAOA and CDH13 together play a part in 5-10% of Finland’s violent crime, so even their own research suggests these genotypes are minority causes of such offences.”

    I don’t think one gene (or set of genes) causes violence I think it’s the combination of “angel” and “devil” genes i.e. the devil genes produce a dose of happy chemicals when their carrier hurts someone and a second set produce a dose of sad chemicals when their carrier hurts someone and happy chemicals when they help someone.

    The final result is the effect of the two in combination.

    Someone with a lot more devil genes than angel genes will be very violent, someone with more but not a lot more will be somewhat more violent etc.

    So if for the sake of argument those low-activity MAOA alleles are one of the devil genes then they won’t display in someone who has a lot of angel genes.

    Personally I’m very 50/50 on this so I feel the competing pull between my evil and good sides all the time (which makes me *extremely* hostile to people who are past the tipping point while at the same time recognizing how useful the evil side can be in certain high risk situations).

    .

    “which showed the importance of interactions between someone’s upbringing and his genes”

    I think this is a confounding issue as violence in childhood is likely coming from people who have the right gene combinations for violence imo so it’s not

    violent behavior ~ MAOA + abusive violence in childhood

    it’s

    violent behavior ~ MAOA + low levels of angel genes in the family (leading to violent behavior among the adults which leads to abusive violence in childhood)

    .

    “Also, as Dr Tiihonen observes, in Finland, most violent crime takes place under the influence of alcohol or amphetamines”

    Yes, imagine what you are like when you are drunk and then consider that some people are exactly like that when stone cold sober and some of the nastiest aspects of the world suddenly make a lot more sense.

    Reply

  12. @GW: “The facial ratio likely points to a deeper level imo i.e. the cause is x and different population groups have differing proportions of x.” No; by not analysing each race separately you are just risking the confounding of effects. Nobody would analyse the heights of a population without distinguishing the males and females, would they? It’s the same argument.

    Reply

  13. @myself

    “Although that makes sense they might want to consider refining their definition of violent crime later.”

    The way to judge how violent a crime is the reaction of the victim. People generally and women in particular react to burglary pretty much exactly the same as a physical assault so in terms of reactions the sequence might go something like:

    murder
    rape
    assault
    burglary
    street robbery
    bag snatching
    pick pocketing

    and the graph of devil genes – angel genes (if such a thing was ever created) would likely follow that sequence imo.

    Reply

  14. Facebook would classify me as a sociopath, because I short two pages on ” against white genocide ”, ” genocide against white South Africa ”, ” Anne Frank ” and ” policy of open-door immigration to Israel ”.

    ;)

    Reply

  15. The ecology of religious beliefs – “Both comparative and experimental evidence indicate that beliefs in moralizing high gods promote cooperation among humans, a behavioral attribute known to correlate with environmental harshness in nonhuman animals. Here we combine fine-grained bioclimatic data with the latest statistical tools from ecology and the social sciences to evaluate the potential effects of environmental forces, language history, and culture on the global distribution of belief in moralizing high gods (n = 583 societies). After simultaneously accounting for potential nonindependence among societies because of shared ancestry and cultural diffusion, we find that these beliefs are more prevalent among societies that inhabit poorer environments and are more prone to ecological duress.”

    This certainly accords with my analysis of the emergence of Judaism in the sociological context of the late Bronze Age, a period of civilizational collapse and migration:

    https://sites.google.com/site/thetorahandthewestbank/

    [Like all my writings, my scholarly researches are in the service of contemporary political issues — sorry about that, but I am a problem solver, or, should I say, a searcher for solutions, by nature. No doubt there is a genetic explanation.]

    Reply

  16. Greying wanderer, I would not climb over that redhead to get to you! She has obviously been trying to tan her skin, for the same reason as girls her age do most things: to be desirable. White skin is probably an adaptation for eliciting care and provisioning in a monogamous mating system.

    Imagine chimps living in mated pairs . The male chimp would be bashing up the female constantly. Evolution might develop markings for the female that made him less inclined to do that. And conceivably those markings might have a downside inasmuch as they could inhibit his sexual instincts. When in a different environment there was pressure to be attractive the female chimps might learn to obscure those markings. Hence tanning.

    Reply

  17. @Sean

    “She has obviously been trying to tan her skin”

    I’ve seen that naturally – very rare admittedly. Lighter skin with lots of freckles would be one way of regulating UV exposure. Although additional skin lightening alleles covering up the freckles might possibly cover up the importance of the freckle part of the adaptation.

    .

    “Imagine chimps living in mated pairs . The male chimp would be bashing up the female constantly. Evolution might develop markings for the female that made him less inclined to do that.”

    Except it didn’t.

    Reducing male aggression would have been necessary from the first point some male provisioning was necessary i.e. most likely directly out of the Tropics, but light skin wasn’t. So all sorts of other adaptations other than light skin seem to have been preferred from that point onward to reduce male aggression.

    So either light skin was the last in a long chain of aggression reducing adaptations as you suggest but could develop only where light skin was beneficial or at least not as negative or it developed for other reasons but then spread for both reasons.

    Either way it’s got something to do with latitude.

    Reply

  18. @myself

    “Reducing male aggression would have been necessary from the first point some male provisioning was necessary”

    For example high testosterone levels in the womb – which might have interesting side-effects like for instance squarer heads with more prominent brow ridges and jaws as protection from being hit – could be reduced, perhaps resulting in more elongated heads.

    Reply

  19. Re: wide faced footballers, I don’t think they bothered with racial groups, but I get the impression they normalised against each team’s FWHR (which could be better or worse, depending on variation)

    http://download.springer.com/static/pdf/909/art%253A10.1007%252Fs40750-014-0003-3.pdf?auth66=1417036481_91b32226885454fda21722cd6b67423d&ext=.pdf

    I’m a bit skeptical of testing this thesis (FWHR points to personality, as demonstrated by decisions and reactions as inferred from fouls, etc.) out in terms of sports – the problem here is you could reasonably expect there still to be physical correlates in terms of high testosterone and low testosterone elite performers, for which FWHR is a correlate. E.g. very enduring and fast vs stronger but less fit and fast, might be what I expect when normalizing for a performance threshold and distinguishing based on t (even if higher t generally tends just to be higher performance when you don’t control for that threshold). And those could inform play decisions in a way that could alter personality based preferences. Those might be worth controlling for.

    Reply

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