you could write a book about it! you really could.
first of all, there are endogamous mating practices in all directions in pakistan: people marrying within their ethnic group (sindhi, balochi, punjabi); people marrying within their religion (muslim, sikh, christian); people marrying within their religious sect (sunni, shia); people marrying within their clan/tribe and/or caste (biradaris or zats or quoms) — like i could keep track of this all. *facepalm*
and then, of course, pakistanis are also endogamous within their extended families (or clans) and regularly marry cousins, fbd marriage being the preferred form (you’re not surprised, are you?).
i posted yesterday that one researcher found that pakistanis in britain had an endogamous marriages rate (that included marriages ranging from first-cousins to simply within the same biradari or patrilineage) of 87%. the numbers are not all that different for pakistanis back in pakistan: one researcher (see below) found in 2004-05 that 90% of marriages in punjab and sindh were between blood relatives or members of the same biradari. that’s a LOT of endogamy.
there’s a lot of data out there on consanguineous marriages in pakistan. below are some snippets from just five different articles, including one on sikhs who appear to have a much lower cousin-marriage rate than pakistani muslims (we’ve seen this before). and, interestingly, the sikhs in the particular study cited below did not have any fbd marriage.
christians also have lower cousin-marriages rates than muslims; and hindus have very low rates as well. also, it appears that the number of consanguineous marriages has increased over the past generation or two. (same pattern for pakistanis in the u.k.) seems things are going from bad to worse.
this is really just the tip of the ice-berg, but here we go:
- study of one extended family, up to seven generations, in badin district, sindh, pub. 2010:
“The recent ‘Pakistan Demographic and Health Survey (DHS) has shown that two-thirds of marriages in Pakistan are consanguineous…. The studies by Hussain R et al on consanguineous marriages in Pakistan have show frequency of 58.7% in the Karachi survey and 62.7% in the DHS. 83.6% of consanguineous marriages in the Karachi survey and 80.4% in the DHS were between first cousins.”
- 3,100 married women age 15-40 in households randomly sampled from 171 villages in punjab and sindh, 2004-05 (watta-satta is when two families exchange brides):
married same/neighboring village = 62%
married outside the tehsil (sub-district) = 20%
married blood relative = 77% (mostly paternal first-cousins)
married unrelated but within the same caste/patrilineage (zaat/biradari) = 13%
exogamous marriages = 10%
watta satta marriages = 43% [no wonder there are so many double-first-cousin marriages in pakistan.]
- interviews of families of all patients admitted to a pediatric department in a hospital in karachi, jan-dec 2001:
1C & 2C marriages = 72.7%
87% of the cousin marriages were between 1C.
85.7% had double consanguinity
consanguinity amongst maternal grandparents = 64.15%
1C = 77%; 2C = 22%
consanguinity amongst paternal grandparents = 60.3%
1C = 83%; 2C = 16.8%
sindhi = 42%
balochi = 33%
- four squatter settlements in karachi, 1995:
non-consanguineous = 43.2% – 47.4%
- muslims = 25.9% – 57.5%
- christians = 34.6% – 59.3%
- hindus = 7.9% – 14.8%
1C = 51.4% – 52.6%
- muslims = 63.4% – 81.4%
- christians = 16.8% – 28.3%
- hindus = 1.8% – 8.3%
- sikhs in the northwest frontier province (nwfp), 1996:
consanguineous marriages (2C or closer) = 21%
marriages with more distant relatives = 29.4%
mzd, mbd and fzd marriages. no fbd marriage.
mzd = 7.7%
fzd = 6.3%
mbd = 6.3%
2C = 0.7%
“[H]usbands with higher education contract marriages with cousins more frequently than those males with lower education…. Cousin marriages have shown an increasing trend over the years.”
pukhtun (pashtun) vs. sikh marriages from swat:
1C = 25% vs. 20%
non-consanguineous = 75% vs. 80%
see also: genealogical terminology
previously: anarchy in the u.k.
(note: comments do not require an email. sikh soldier.)